The Independent Correspondence and Other Materials, 1680-1936 | Special Collections and University Archives
Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891
Bowen, Henry Chandler, 1813-1896
College of William and Mary. Norfolk Division
College of William and Mary. Norfolk Division--Hughes Library
Frémont, John Charles, 1813-1890
Furness, Horace Howard, 1833-1912
Furness, Horace Howard, 1865-1930
Gray, Asa, 1810-1888
Ward, William Hayes, 1835-1916
This collection does not include physical copies of the Independent newspaper. Several volumes of the newspaper have been digitized by the Hathi Trust.
The collection includes papers ranging in dates from 1680 to 1936 with the bulk of the collection falling between 1879 and 1881. Most of the collection is comprised of the correspondence of William Hayes Ward, editor of The Independent, with notable literary and historical figures including General John Charles Frémont, American explorer and expedition leader; P. T. Barnum, showman; and Asa Gray, the preeminent American botanist of the 19th century.
Other items in the collection include American literature and theater papers; colonial historical manuscripts and documents; and correspondence with the library of Norfolk division of the College of William and Mary (the predecessor of Old Dominion University). The collection contains a number of transcriptions, some of which include inaccurate identifications which are noted in the finding aid.
Assorted other papers in the collection include presidential signatures; a letter by John Ruskin, Victorian art and social critic; part of a book manuscript by American author Washington Irving; colonial deeds, including a land grant signed and sealed by Lord Dunmore; and papers and letters on American theatre, including correspondence of Horace Howard Furness, Sr., Horace Howard Furness, Jr., and Samuel Chew.
Series I: Editorial Correspondence of The Independent, 1866-1917
Series II: Literary Authors and Papers on American Theater., 1896-1913.
Series III: Historical Manuscripts and Documents., 1680-1795.
Series IV: Miscellaneous Literary and Political Correspondence, 1930-1936.
Series V: William and Mary Norfolk Campus library correspondence., 1958-1960.